Minerals

Minerals

Some key minerals for health and wellness are listed here.

Chromium

Chromium is a mineral that humans require in trace amounts. Chromium is known to enhance the action of insulin, a hormone critical to the metabolism and storage of carbohydrate, fat, and protein in the body. In 1957, a compound in brewers' yeast was found to prevent an age-related decline in the ability of rats to maintain normal levels of sugar (glucose) in their blood [3]. Chromium was identified as the active ingredient in this so-called "glucose tolerance factor" in 1959 [5].

Chromium also appears to be directly involved in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism [1-2,6-11]

What foods provide chromium?

Chromium is widely distributed in the food supply, but most foods provide only small amounts (less than 2 micrograms [mcg] per serving). Meat and whole-grain products, as well as some fruits, vegetables, and spices are relatively good sources [12]. In contrast, foods high in simple sugars (like sucrose and fructose) are low in chromium [13].

Dietary intakes of chromium cannot be reliably determined because the content of the mineral in foods is substantially affected by agricultural and manufacturing processes and perhaps by contamination with chromium when the foods are analyzed [10,12,14]. Therefore, Table 1, and food-composition databases generally, provide approximate values of chromium in foods that should only serve as a guide.

Selected food sources of chromium [12,15-16]

Broccoli, � cup 11
Grape juice, 1 cup 8
English muffin, whole wheat, 1 4
Potatoes, mashed, 1 cup 3
Garlic, dried, 1 teaspoon 3
Basil, dried, 1 tablespoon 2
Beef cubes, 3 ounces 2
Orange juice, 1 cup 2
Turkey breast, 3 ounces 2
Whole wheat bread, 2 slices 2
Red wine, 5 ounces 1�13
Apple, unpeeled, 1 medium 1
Banana, 1 medium 1
Green beans, � cup 1

What are recommended intakes of chromium?

Recommended chromium intakes are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences [14]. Dietary Reference Intakes is the general term for a set of reference values to plan and assess the nutrient intakes of healthy people. These values include the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and the Adequate Intake (AI). The RDA is the average daily intake that meets a nutrient requirement of nearly all (97 to 98%) healthy individuals [14]. An AI is established when there is insufficient research to establish an RDA; it is generally set at a level that healthy people typically consume.